Osteoporosis and sport, the perfect complement

Osteoporosis is a disease that affects the bones, due to the decrease in bone mass. It causes a decrease in calcium mineral salts, and in the proteins that form both the matrix and the structure of the bone. It results in the poor resistance of the bone system to possible injuries from falls. This disease usually goes unnoticed, which is why it is called "the silent epidemic". The clinical manifestations of osteoporosis are: fractures in hips, wrists and spine.

What do the statistics tell us?

WHO statistics show that every 3 seconds an osteoporotic fracture occurs worldwide, equivalent to 8.9 million fractures per year. On the other hand, 1 in 3 women, and 1 in 5 men over the age of 50, will suffer an osteoporosis fracture in the rest of their lives. This reveals to us that, this condition has higher prevalence in women.

What is the relationship between osteoporosis and climacteric in women?

The climacteric is the period before and after menopause and it is during which the well-known symptoms of this stage occur. Dr. Maritza Busquets, a gynecologist at the Clínica Universidad de los Andes, points out that in four out of every five women, climacteric is marked by the appearance of mood swings, headaches, hot flashes, dizziness, palpitations and, in some cases, pelvic pain. Although climacteric is a physiological process that cannot be avoided. However, sport can stimulate changes at the heart level, regulate glucose levels, cholesterol, bone density, among others.

How is osteoporosis diagnosed?

The diagnosis of osteoporosis is made by means of bone densitometry, a radiographic study recognized by the WHO, to determine the calcium content of the bone and the risk of osteoporosis. Normal bone mineral density (BMD) figures are 0.97 and 1.28 g/cm².. If it is less than 0.97 there is a low BMD and 0.97 is the so-called fracture threshold (susceptible to suffer a pathological fracture and to be treated with a calcification treatment).

So, how does exercise affect osteoporosis?

Women who usually practice physical exercise, have a coronary risk three times lower than the sedentary ones, and present a better relationship between muscle mass and fat tissue In numerous studies on osteoarticular problems physical exercise is associated with increased bone mass. In the case of osteoporosis, a six-week workout increases muscle strength and bone mineral content.

How hard should my exercise be?

Physical exercise should be moderate and regular. An exercise in which the pulsations do not exceed 130 beats per minute is recommended. It should be integrated into the daily habits of life or at least performed two or three times a week in sessions of 30 minutes and, at the end, a period of relaxation.

What will I get if I exercise to prevent osteoporosis?

What you will get, no doubt, is to have a better quality of life. Remember that the practice of any sport must be accompanied by some good eating habits. Without a doubt, it is worth getting moving, even if it is a few minutes of your day, since you will get stronger bones, you will find yourself far from diseases as common as hypertension and diabetes, which are the leading cause of death in much of the world. We invite you to see this as the best investment you can make in yourself, building a healthy body and mind.
 
Fitness and sport team Bibliographic references
  1.  (See in: Martínez Garduño MD, Olivos Rubio M, Gómez Torres D, Cruz Bello P. Nursing educational intervention to promote women's self-care during climacteric. University Nursing. 2016 [cited 22 Feb 2018]; 13 (3): 142-150.Available Here.
  2. See Castillo Valencia MC. Relationship between the level of knowledge and the attitudes towards the climacteric in women from 40 to 59 years old assisted in the San Juan de Lurigancho Hospital, June-July 2016. [Thesis] [Lima, Peru]: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Medicina; 2016.62p. Available Here.
  3. Eduardo Rossi F, Diniz TA, Buonani C, Melo Neves L, de Souza Fortaleza AC, DestroChristofaro DG, et al. Physical activity level behavior according to the day of the week in postmenopausal women. Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2017[citado 22 feb 2018]; 10(2):64-68. Available Here.
  4. Prieto Peralta M, Sandoval Cuellar C, Cobo Mejia EA. Effects of physical activity on health-related quality of life in adults with osteopenia and osteoporosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiotherapy. 2017 [cited 22 Feb 2018]; 39(2):83-92. Available Here.
  5. Physical exercise to counteract osteoporosis "Benefits of physical exercise over osteoporosis Yarimi Rodríguez Moldón, Yoandry Darías Jiménez 2 , Raisa Rodríguez Duque See Here.
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